Festivals continue in India, how do people suffer due to the worldwide crowd

In Haridwar, Uttarakhand, thousands of devotees gathered on Wednesday to take a dip in the Ganges on the thirteenth day of the Maha Kumbh, even as India continues to fight the intense second wave of Kovid-19 infection.

Whether it is religious events or conferences or rallies, super-spreading events that can infect dozens, hundreds, even thousands, people have portrayed the possibility of coronovirus dramatically bursting. Such incidents have made headlines, which are large in the narrative of the revealing epidemic.

Experts say that these large clusters are more than just extremes, but also possible main engines of epidemic transmission. This corresponds to the 80/20 rule of epidemiology, where 80% of cases come from only 20% of those infected. Research scientist Benjamin Althouse of the Washington Institute for Disease Modeling said coronovirus can be even more extreme, with 90% of cases likely coming from carriers in 10%.

Here are some of the biggest super-spreader events globally.

1. Mulhouse, France

From February 18, 2020, the Christian Open Door Church in Mulhouse, a city of 100,000 on the borders of France with Germany, Switzerland and Switzerland, hosted a week-long annual celebration. Thousands of people from all over the world attended the event. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 12 confirmed cases in France at the time.

There were none in the Mulhouse area. The local government said the prayer meeting kicked off the largest group of Kovid-19s in France. About 2,500 confirmed cases have been linked to it. Worshipers in the church unwittingly carried the disease caused by the virus – to the West African state of Burkina Faso, the Mediterranean island of Corsica, in Guyana, Latin America, to Switzerland, and even to a French nuclear power plant.

Also read Number theory: Are more people dying in the second wave of India?

Antoinette, one of the attendees, on 4 March, became one of the first cases of Kovid-19 on the French island of Corsica. As of 20 March, there were over 10,000 cases of Kovid-19 in France. About a quarter were in Grand-est, the area also includes Mulhouse. Local public health officer Michel Verne said “a very large majority of these” can be traced back to the church.

2. San Siro, Italy

It was the largest football game in Atalanta’s history and a third of Bergamo’s population made a short trip to Milan’s famous San Siro Stadium. Around 2,500 fans from Spanish club Valencia also traveled to the Champions League match. Altogether 44,236 people were present in the stadium.

More than a month later, experts began pointing to the February 19 game as Bergamo became one of the epicenter of the coronovirus pandemic – a “biological bomb” the way a respiratory specialist had put in – and 35 Why% of Valencia’s team got infected.

The match, dubbed by the local media as “Game Zero”, was held two days before the first case of the locally-broadcast Kovid-19 in Italy was confirmed. Nearly 7,000 people in Bergamo province had tested positive for Kovid-19 and more than 1,000 people had died of the virus – making Bergamo the deadliest province in all of Italy for the epidemic. More than 2,600 people are reported to be infected in the Valencia region.

3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tablighi Jamaat, an Islamic missionary movement organized between 27 February and 1 March last year at a huge mosque complex on the outskirts of Malaysia’s capital, Kuala Lumpur, emerged as the source of hundreds of new coronoviruses spread across Southeast Asia.

It was attended by 16,000 people, including 1,500 foreigners. About two-thirds of Malaysia’s 673 confirmed coronovirus cases are related to the four-day meeting, Malaysia’s Health Minister Adham Baba said. It is not clear who brought the virus in the first place.

The packed gathering, where guests were supposed to take shuttle buses to sleep elsewhere, was attended by citizens from dozens of countries, including Canada, Nigeria, China, South Korea, India and Australia, according to an attendee list posted on social media. Brunei has confirmed at least 50 cases involving the mosque gathering. Singapore announced five associated with the incident, Cambodia 13 and Thailand at least two.

4. Daegu, South Korea

Other religious ceremonies have been linked to the spread of the virus: a large church in South Korea triggered the largest group of cases outside of Wuhan, China, where the virus was first discovered in February last year.

In early February, South Korea’s coronavirus outbreak included 30 as the number of confirmed infections that stabilized. Then on February 17, the 31st case was reported at a health clinic in the city of Daegu, 150 miles south of the capital. The vast majority of known infections were located. An unidentified 61-year-old woman, who lived there and occasionally visited Seoul, tested positive for the virus.

This seemed like a standard case until public health officials began tracing the patient’s tracks. He was shocked by what he learned – the woman attended two worship services during the last 10 days along with at least 1,000 other members of her secret religious sect.

Within 24 hours, the number of confirmed cases of the nation began to multiply rapidly. The tally increased to 20 during that period, doubling the next day and then doubling again on the third day.

By 26 February, the count skyrocketed from the previous 1000 – an increase of more than 30 times in a week that prompted the government to raise its health alerts to the highest level. At least half of the new cases are associated with a sect called Shinchonji – which translates to “new heaven and land” and whose members worship side-by-side in tight spaces. More than 5,000 cases have now been attributed to this religious ceremony.

5. Washington DC, U.S.

As the world was shocked by the events of January 6, hundreds of unsuspecting supporters of former US President Donald Trump stormed into the Capitol building to block Joe Biden’s certificate as the winner of the 2020 election, a super-spreader event Must have been in the making.

In the days following the deadly riots, the former director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Drs. Robert Redfield called it an “escalation event”.

“These (unmasked) individuals are all going home right now in cars and trains and planes going home. So, I think this is an event that will probably lead to a significant spread,” an interview by Redfield Told McClatchy.

Economists from San Diego State and Bentley Universities said in a review paper that yet-to-be riots could lead to “non-localized community-level Kovid-19 proliferation,” meaning that the protesters, who came from all over the country. The latter, even as a result of diffusion in their own communities rather than their direct states, returned to their home states, as commonly occurs in such super spreader events.

After the siege in Washington DC, 150 National Guard soldiers, 38 US Capitol police officers and at least four members of Congress tested positive.

Eric Toner, senior scholar at the John Hopkins Center for Health Security, said in Washington, “All of the cases resulting from this incident are likely to end a large number of cases in our country at this time.” Later.

This was not the only incident involving Trump, and his coronovirus denial and mismanagement. Economists at Stanford University estimate that there were 30,000 additional confirmed cases of Kovid-19 as a result of Trump’s campaign before the November 3 elections, and more than 700 deaths in total.

B. President of Economics at Stanford University. The research, led by Douglas Bernheim, analyzed subsequent data from 18 Trump rallies held between June 20 and September 22, three of which were indoors. Bernheim said that the occurrence in an email depends on statistical methods after the event has occurred.

6. Boston, USA

According to a study published in the journal Science, an international conference was organized at the Marriott Long Wharf Hotel in Boston by Biogen, an American biotechnology company.

At least 99 Kovid-19 cases were reported from the incident between March 26 and 27 in March last year. Sequencing the genome of the virus, obtained in March, revealed two mutations before the convention that had not been reported previously in the US.

The first version of the virus infects approximately 245,000 people in the US, while the second infects 88,000 cases. This conference was responsible for approximately 20,000 cases in the Boston area alone. “A similar virus within a narrow time window”, the researchers wrote in a science article, pointing to a super-spreader phenomenon.

7. Sturgis, U.S.

In early September, several US Midwestern states experienced an increasing number of Kovid-19 cases, many seemingly linked to an annual motorcycle rally in Stirling, South Dakota.

The rally, held from 7 to 16 August, attracted an estimated 460,000 motorcycle enthusiasts. Bikers crowded bars and rock shows, mostly ignoring social removal recommendations. Some wore masks. As a result, the rally was linked to hundreds of coronovirus cases in more than 10 US states.

A study published by the IZA Institute of Labor Economics that used cell phone data to track movements claimed that between August 2 and September 2, 266,796 cases could be linked to the Sturgis rally – at the time. 19% of the 1.4 million national coronaviruses during.

However, the number is quite disputed: South Dakota state epidemiologist Josh Clayton criticized the study for not accounting for the fact that cases were already on the rise, which is partly attributed to the school’s renapping. can go. Johns Hopkins University stated “the data analysis used to derive nationwide estimates was relatively weak”.

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